Planetary Utilization of Sustainability Strategies (PLUS) Southern African Regional Conference, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus

DATE: 11 – 13 September 2023


1. Ms Elvena Hayford

Marketing the SDGs: Concept, Gaps and Opportunities for Action in Southern Africa

The United Nations adopted the Sustainable Development Goals, known as the Global Goals, in September 2015. There are 17 interconnected goals that attempt to address global social, economic, and environmental concerns by 2030. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to achieve a more equitable future by addressing critical economic, social, and environmental challenges.

Southern Africa presents both challenges and opportunities for sustainable development, making the SDGs particularly significant in the region. Among the SDGs that hold importance in Southern Africa are eradicating poverty, ensuring zero hunger, promoting good health and well-being, providing quality education, promoting gender equality, ensuring access to clean water and sanitation, and promoting affordable clean energy solutions.

Despite increased awareness of the SDGs, there are still marketing gaps in Southern Africa. One of the difficulties is successfully articulating the importance of these goals. Getting people and organizations to actively contribute to their success. The SDGs persistently face attention in the middle of difficulties, unique and appealing marketing methods are required to build exposure and stimulate enthusiasm.

The study explores supporting SDGs through marketing, addressing limitations and opportunities for awareness, engagement, and achievement. It presents effective strategies to engage stakeholders in SDG action.

2. Dr Israel Blackie

Human Wildlife Conflict Injuries and Mental Health (in Southern Africa: KAZA TFCA)

The World Health Organization indicates that nearly 8% of all deaths globally, are a result of injuries (i.e., both unintentional and violence-related). This longitudinal study aims at highlighting and providing research-based evidence, policy and practical solutions to mental health resulting from human injuries and loss from human wildlife conflict (HWC) interactions among local communities. A mixed methods research design (i.e., explanatory sequential research design) study involving two phases of data collection and analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data at different points in time. The study intends to ascertain the magnitude of HWC in the KAZA-Trans Frontier Conservation Area, and also explores the anxiety, depression as well as posttraumatic stress disorder associated with human wildlife injuries, with a view to providing relevant intervention as early as possible.

Keywords: Botswana, elephants, human-wildlife conflict, KAVANGO-ZAMBEZI, posttraumatic stress disorder, injury, deaths.

3. Bernardino Bernardo

Maputo urban area (Mozambique) dust characterization and human health risk assessment (preliminary results)

Dust is an important source of pollutants with impact in the environment and human health. In this study, road dust samples, fractions < 63 and 2000 µm, were collected in Maputo urban area (Mozambique). Dust was characterized on their physical, mineralogical (XRD), and geochemical (XRF) content. Environmental and human health risk was assessed. Mineralogical analysis revealed the predominance of quartz (SiO2), followed by phyllosilicates (mainly micas and kaolinite) > K-feldspars (KAlSi3O8) > plagioclase ((NaCa)((SiAl)AlSi2)O8) >, carbonates (calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) > sulphates (alunite (KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6), anhydrite (CaSO4)). Contamination index taking in consideration PTEs Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, and Zr revealed concentration above guidelines. Hazard quotient, or non-carcinogenic hazard, suggested that ingestion was the main exposure route for children, mostly due to, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb content. Carcinogenic risk was identified for Ni and Pb road dust content.

4. Dr Joy Tauetsile

Burnout and its effects on mental health and well-being among faculty. A comparative Analysis Between North-West University and University of Botswana

This study is a comparative study which seeks to investigate the relationship between Burnout and Mental Well-being among faculty at the University of Northwest in South Africa and the University of Botswana. Explanatory parallel mixed method research design will be employed for this inquiry where the author will employ an auto ethnographic method to explain and analyse their own personal experience to which a survey and interview questions will be developed as tools for data collection. Interviews will be conducted and at the same time a survey will be sent out to respondents. Qualitative data will be analysed with the Nvivo software and Quantitative data will be analysed with SPSS. The findings are expected to be reveal that faculty members experience high levels of burnout attributed to high teaching workloads, unreasonable research output expectations and unsupportive HR policies among other factors. A marked significant difference is expected with University of Botswana faculty reporting slightly higher levels of Burnout than University of Northwest faculty. This is due to the current transformation to a High-Performance Organization (HPO) bringing with it Job losses and new structure.

Key words: Burnout, Faculty, HPO

5. Mr L Locke

Veganism in Johannesburg: Sustainable future entrenched in the past

As a social and political movement Veganism has much to offer sustainable futures. In Johannesburg, South Africa, the vegan community is comprised of predominantly white, middle to upper class, and is animated by a well-established set of events and markets catering to vegan concerns. My ongoing research, part of which involves mapping the field of contestation and collaboration within the vegan community, has begun to indicate a troubling infrastructural dependency linking contemporary veganism to the history and legacy of apartheid planning in the city. Drawing from Czegledi (2004) I argue that markets and events catering to vegans or representing vegan ideals (conscious living, sustainability, animal advocacy, organic food) occur in a city designed around the car in ways that set significant financial barriers to the participation for historically marginalised groups.

Due to this, black and working class South Africans are consequently excluded from such events and thus from meaningful inclusion and participation in shaping the vegan community in the city. I do so using an analytic frame taken from Bruno Latour, namely his notion of compositionsim to show that Johannesburg veganism emerges from a Bourdieusian field in which matters of concern relating to raising, killing and consuming of animals or animal products. Building from this, I argue that what emerges as veganism, as a consequence of its emergence along the infrastructures of oppression and exclusion, in Johannesburg is trapped in a narrow class and race-based circuit that currently undermines its ability to claim a place in an inclusive and sustainable future.

6. Gabriel Faimau

Space Claiming or Space Sharing? Spatial Arrangements at the Gaborone Bus Station in Botswana

“Spatialising culture”, spatial transformation and spatial arrangements have become an area of research interest in the past few decades. Scholars in this area have generally supported the idea that analysis of spatial arrangements is important in order to uncover social inequality, exclusion and social dislocation. In addition, space is often problematised to discover the power dynamics and meanings of everyday life embedded in various spatial relations (Low, 2011). One of the analytical modes to understand spatial arrangements is the use of material space to interrogate the embedded spatial relations. Drawing on a field study conducted in 2023, this paper turns to spatial thinking to understand various spatial arrangements at the Gaborone Bus Station in Botswana. Over the years, Gaborone bus station has been transformed into a world on its own. The station does not only function as a “passing space” for domestic and international travellers. The station has also offered space for various socio-economic and socio-political transformations. Moreover, the station clearly provides social contexts for different activities, forms of communication, societal functions and informal/formal networks (Knoblauch and Low, 2022). As such, it can be argued that while humans construct and produce space, space also affects and shapes humans and human relations (Million, Haid, Ulloa and Buar, 2022). Within this context, space claiming and space sharing become inevitable. This paper will therefore focus on the following key questions: First, how does refiguration of space take place at the Gaborone bus station? Secondly, how do individual and collective actors engage in various spatial arrangements? In what ways, does social inequality manifest itself in the context of Gaborone bus station spatial arrangements?

7. Dr Esther Nkhukhu-Orlando

Sustainable Infrastructural development: Making public spaces accessible to the physically challenged

In every country, many members of society may experience a physical disability at some point in their lives. Therefore, the physical environment, especially public spaces in general should provide the needs of all people equally. Achieving accessibility and social justice for all citizens should be the core of every country’s vision to build meaningful citizenship and a future of hope for all. Considerations should be made in the designing of public buildings and spaces to promote accessibility. Countries have a mandate to provide safe, convenient and enjoyable environments for their citizens because hostile environments are created for those living with disabilities if their environments cannot support their access to most places. Addressing accessibility issues achieves inclusivity and equality for those living with disability, especially those faced with mobility issues. Infrastructural designs should be centered around promoting an egalitarian approach into space and products to prevent discrimination of those living with disability. The research uses ethnography to (1) assesses the extent to which three biggest public health facilities in Gaborone are accessible to wheelchair bound individuals (2) to evaluate the performance of public spaces based on perceptions of persons with disabilities and their care givers.


Diamonds as a national socio-economic and environmental treasure in Botswana

This paper examines the contribution of the diamond mining sector as a land resource to redress inequities from colonial rule in a resource-based Botswana. As a British colony, Botswana is one of the biggest diamond producers globally making the success of this landlocked country almost diamond driven. The increase in population growth of Botswana led to the need for infrastructure development, therefore, compelling the government to think about how the country can benefit more from the diamond resource, triggering re-negotiations into a new contract.

The evolution of culture, social development, and education in Botswana from the colonial and pre-colonial periods has shifted the overall proceeds extracted from the government. In order to achieve this cultural economics shift, skill adaptation from the colonial rule motivated Batswana to forge an economic approach to diamonds thus making it an asset to the country. Otherwise, the generational macroeconomic wealth harnessed from the resources would not have been successful. Efforts to sustainably manage resource distribution and conservation is a drive in Botswana’s goal because their main output comes directly from diamond sales which are also in alignment with Botswana’s vision 2036, pillar number 3. Incorporating evidence from reviews, journal articles, and other kinds of literature, this paper will demonstrate the need for environmental sustainability in the resource-rich Botswana.

KEYWORDS: diamonds, culture, social development, vision 2036

9. Mario Siukuta

Integrating Indigenous and local knowledge into land-based climate mitigation Frameworks in Namibia

Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) play a central role in achieving sustainable development and food security (Smith & Bustamante, 2014). Its potential is derived from both enhancing the removal of greenhouse gases and reducing the emission of gases through sustainable land management (Smith & Bustamante, 2014). While land-based climate mitigation, has the potential to help the world limit climate change there is still an increased demand to improve these efforts. For instance, indigenous communities have managed to sustain themselves through their ability to work with nature and use their unique information about their past experiences to provide for solutions to present issues. Climate change solutions should be inclusive of local traditional knowledge and practices that have historically contributed to the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems. Therefore, the purpose of this paper will be to provide a critique of the theoretical concept on the role of local indigenous knowledge in addressing climate change. It does this by strengthening existing knowledge and understanding of Indigenous local knowledge and provides recommendations on how indigenous local knowledge can be incorporated within climate change mitigation frameworks.

Key Words: Local knowledge; land-based climate mitigation; climate change

10. Leanard Yeye

Land and the question of Land Restitution and Land Use to Redress Inequities Deriving from Colonial Conquest

The question of land restitution and land use has emerged as a critical issue in post-colonial societies seeking to redress historical injustices and address socio-economic inequities resulting from colonial conquest. This academic abstract aims to explore the complexities and challenges associated with land restitution and its subsequent use as a means of rectifying historical injustices. The process of land restitution involves returning land to communities or individuals who were dispossessed during colonial conquest. It seeks to restore ownership rights and provide opportunities for marginalized groups to regain control over their ancestral lands. However, the implementation of land restitution policies is often fraught with challenges, including legal complexities, competing claims, and limited resources.

Furthermore, the question of land use arises once land is restored to its rightful owners. Decisions regarding land use have significant implications for economic development, social cohesion, and environmental sustainability. Balancing the interests of various stakeholders, including indigenous communities, agricultural producers, and conservationists, is crucial to ensure equitable and sustainable land use practices.

This abstract will draw on existing literature, case studies, and theoretical frameworks to analyse the multifaceted dimensions of land restitution and land use. It will explore the historical Context of colonial conquest, the legal frameworks governing land restitution, and the socio-economic implications of different land use strategies. The findings of this abstract will contribute to the academic discourse on post-colonial land governance and provide insights into the challenges and opportunities associated with land restitution and land use. It will highlight the importance of inclusive decision-making processes, sustainable land management practices, and the need for comprehensive policies that address historical injustices while promoting socio-economic development and environmental stewardship.

Keywords: land restitution, land use, colonial conquest, historical injustices, socio-economic inequities, post-colonial land governance, and sustainable land management

11. Alberto, A., Boane

Evaluation of the Agricultural Efficiency of Different Combinations of Poultry Manure and NPK Cabbage Yield (Brassica oleracea, var. Acephala) in Maputo: A Contribution to Sustainable Land Use

As recommended by the United Nations, member countries must make efforts to ensure an acceptable quality of life for their populations, developing actions that make it possible to achieve the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. Seeking to respond to this call, the present research was developed as a relevant strategy for the pursuance of these objectives, highlighting: SDG15 (Protect Life on Earth), SDG12 (Sustainable Production and Consumption), SDG13 (Climate Action), SDG2 (Eradicate Hunger) and SDG1 (Eradicate poverty). The main aim of the study is to evaluate the agricultural effectiveness of poultry management (organic) and its mixtures with mineral fertilizer (NPK) in different proportions in the growth of the cabbage crop in Baixa de Infulene in Maputo, as a contribution to the sustainable and safe use of land. Baixa de Infulene is characterized by being the largest and most relevant green belt in Maputo City; where different vegetables are produced that supply most of the markets in the city and province of the same name.

The research problem is based on three main aspects: i . excessive and uncontrolled use of chemical/mineral fertilizers, without prior knowledge of the real soil nutrient demand, making them dependent and contaminated, ii. proliferation of poultry handle in areas where poultry is cultivated in the city and province of Maputo without adequate destination and treatment, which contributes to the contamination of soil, surface water and springs, iii. Existence of cases of food poisoning among consumers of vegetables produced in this area. Starting from two premises: H 0: mixtures of poultry manure with NPK do not influence the development of Cabbage and H 1: mixtures of poultry manure with NPK influence the development of Cabbage, field observation, semi-structured interview and experimentation were defined as a methodology for carrying out the research. The study parameters were defined as growth time, leaf blade size, plant weight, plant height, number of commercial leaves, leaf appearance and degree of attachment to the soil, measured over 45 days. Six (06) soil fertilization treatments (T) were carried out, namely: (T 1) with application of only 100g NPK per plot, (T2) only poultry manure in the proportion of 7Kg/plot, (T3) 3.5 Kg poultry manure and 50g NPK, (T4) 25g NPK and 5Kg poultry handling, (T5) 75g NPK and 1.5 Kg chicken handling and the control treatment T0 where no fertilization regimen was applied.

The results of the interview showed that all of them use mineral fertilizer, NPK and none of them has ever tried mixing it with organic waste (poultry manure). Regarding the experimentation, the results show that, in the production of Kale, fertilization provides satisfactory yields in terms of weight, height and number of leaves per plant. For the fresh weight variable, higher cabbage yields (1.1Kg/Plant) were obtained in the treatment (T3 – 50 grams of NPK and 3.5Kg of poultry handling per plot). Treatment T4 showed the lowest value of fresh weight (0.4Kg/Plant). With regard to plant height, the best result was also obtained in the treatment (T3 – 50 grams of NPK and 3.5Kg of poultry handling per plot). On the other hand, the non-fertilized area showed lower values for these parameters. Regarding the number of leaves/plant, higher yields were obtained in the treatment (T1 – 100g/plot) with an average of 14.1 leaves/plant. The other fertilization models did not show a significant effect on the number of leaves/plants, given that the control treatment T0 presents an average (12.2) of leaves/plant, being higher than the other treatments. Based on these results, it is concluded that fertilization based on mixtures of NPK and poultry manure positively influences the development and appearance of cabbage. Thus, farmers are recommended to use these mixtures with greater emphasis for T3, contributing to the reduction of financial waste and improving the quality of the Cabbage produced, as well as the excessive use of chemical fertilizers, which will guarantee a sustainable and safe use of the soil in that plot. PLUS 2023: ” Just Socio-Ecological Transitions: Fundamentals, Cases and Policy Design 1st International Summer School 10-13 September 2023 Key words: Organic fertilization, clean production, agricultural waste recovery, sustainable land use.

12. Sabil Mandala

The potentialities of Sociocultural Heritage and their relationship with natural resources management in Angónia Plateau, Tete Province – Mozambique

Three countries in southern Africa, Mozambique, Zambia and Malawi share a common culture, heritage and language called “Chinyanja”. These communities are found in Macanga, Angónia, Tsangano, Maravia, Moatize and Chifunde in Tete Province, Mozambique and occupies the Angónia Plateau. This choice is because the region is very interesting both from the agricultural point of view and from a soil and water conservation perspective that are important issues concerning the environmental sustainability. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize the role of Sociocultural Heritage practices in natural resources management. The methodology used consisted of bibliographic and documentary survey, photographic survey, application of semi-structured interview questionnaires and focus group meetings. A total of 50 households were interviewed in the survey. The study revealed that through customary practices they regionalize agricultural production, manage agricultural production according to slope, use of crop residues to make dead blankets and use of leguminous plants for soil fertilization. The study recommends that it is necessary to intensify the inventory of socio-cultural aspects that can help sustainable development of the local communities in Angónia Plateau.

13. Ms Nonhle Handi

Communities and ‘Protected Places’: an examination of participatory conservation in the Addo Elephant Park

The primary goal of this study was to examine community-based environmental conservation within protected areas of Addo Elephant Park, and how it affects the livelihoods of communities near the Park. The study had four objectives: a. to examine the nature of local participation in environmental conservation around Addo Elephant Park; b. to determine the extent to which local communities around Addo Elephant Park are capacitated to engage in community-based environmental conservation; c. to understand the effects of local participation in environmental conservation on the livelihoods of communities around Addo Elephant Park; and c. to investigate policy options available to communities and other stakeholders in the management of the Park. The study used qualitative instruments such as FGDs and in-depth interviews to collect data. Data was analyzed thematically. Participants include local community members, ward councillors, traditional leaders, traditional healers, park manager, and government officials. The study found that study communities engage in participatory conservation through CBNRM, government programs, and discrete participation of individuals. The study also discovered that through Advanced Quantitative Methods (AQM), climate change adaptation strategies and Integrated Environmental Management (IEM), local communities are equipped to engage in community-based environmental conservation. The study therefore concluded that the effects of local participation in environmental conservation on livelihoods include increased community and household income, educational attainment, community health, and environmental sustainability.

14. Dr Mhele

Survival time before coital debut among adolescent females in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey

Studies in sub-Saharan Africa show that age of sexual debut among women occurs at relatively younger ages and has been declining in some cases. Further studies have linked early sexual initiation to a variety of negative socioeconomic outcomes such as an increased risk of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection, as well as poor schooling outcomes. These can negatively affect achievement of sustainable development goals, including among others, health, and well-being, as well as eradication of poverty in some cases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the ages in which women in sub-Saharan Africa began engaging in sex and identifying socioeconomic factors influencing early sexual transition.

The study utilised data from nationally representative demographic and health surveys conducted in Lesotho, Mozambique, and Zambia. Study participants were women aged 15-24. There were 11447 participants with the largest number coming from Zambia with 5769, followed by and Mozambique with 2843 and Lesotho with 2835. To estimate the proportion of individuals surviving before their sexual debut at different ages, Kaplan Meier estimates were used. A multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazard model to identify significant factors influencing the transition to sexual activity while controlling for the effects of other variables. The results showed that there were significant differences between these countries regarding the mean age at first sexual activity. While the average age of sexual debut was 17 in Lesotho, women in Zambia and Mozambique had transitioned at relatively lower ages of 16.04 and 15.53 in that order. A multivariate analysis revealed that sexual debut at any age was higher among women in Mozambique (HR=1.50) and Zambia (HR=1.27), using Lesotho as a reference group. In addition, while being a wife to the household head; higher household sizes and believing that gender-based violence is justifiable was associated with the increased likelihood of transitioning to first sex at any age. On the other hand, higher educational level, reading a newspaper and watching TV at least once a week were associated with a reduced likelihood of starting sex at lower ages.

15. Dr Andre Goodrich

Territorial ontology and the impossibility of sustainable futures

Sustainable development engages the question of how we might render sustainable the currently extractive material processes of production and reproduction that have pressed us into a climate emergency.

Taking as a starting point that such processes are emergent compositions in the language of Bruno Latour, it becomes possible to consider sustainable development an ontological problem.

Such an ontological problem requires an ontological turn. This paper pursues that by thinking with three ontological categories, namely land, landscape and territory. On the basis of an analysis of these, I argue that as the inheritors of world of colonial territorialization, scholarship must urgently move our engagement into the realm of landscape as the only one of the three categories within which it is possible to do the sort of compositionist work Latour has advocated while also addressing the three faces of colonial violence that underpin territorialization.

16. Prof Mokgadi Molope

Urban-rural migration in pursuit of sustainable reality

Forced rural-urban migration has been at the centre of socio-economic development in South Africa prior and post-apartheid. This demonstrated through the violent removal of black people from their land and places of origin to urban centres to fulfil the need for cheap labour. Over and above that absence of sources of income and basic amenities in the rural areas because of poor planning and bad governance created the thinking that migration would result into improved living conditions. However, the people’s lived experiences of overcrowded spaces, living below the poverty line and the worsening economic conditions in the urban centres were instead the outcome. Logic may suggest that such lived experiences would push victims who are mostly poor back to their places of origin. However, urban-rural migration seems to be prevalent among middle- and high-income earners. This growing trend seems to be entrenching itself especially in the north west province where mining and agriculture are the pillars of the economy. This paper, therefore, explores this notion of counter urbanisation and assess the extent to which it contributes to people’s ability to take care of themselves from the spaces in which they live. It concludes that in the democratic dispensation forced migration is still prevalent. Unlike during the Apartheid era, the trending migration seems to be triggered by pursuit of a sustainable reality.

Key words: rural-urban migration, urban-rural migration, sustainable reality

17. Blessing Magocha

The Effects of COVID-19 Lockdown on Accessibility, Affordability, and Availability of Basic Commodities in Rural Areas: A Case Study of Mafikeng Local Municipality

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) prompted a global response characterized by unprecedented measures to mitigate its spread. While the measures aimed to curtail the transmission of the virus, they inadvertently triggered a series of socio-economic consequences, particularly in rural areas where vulnerabilities were exacerbated. Despite considerable social and scientific attention given to the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural food security, there is limited information on how the availability, accessibility and affordability of basic commodities were affected by associated lockdown policies in Mafikeng. This presentation will examine the effects of COVID- 19 lockdown on the accessibility, availability and affordability of basic commodities in Mafikeng local municipality during covid- 19 lockdown, using quantitative data collected from 264 households. By addressing food access, affordability, and availability, the study contributes to broader efforts to ensure food security, improve nutrition, and contribute to SDG 2’s goal of achieving zero hunger. The data analysis was done using Chi-square, with a significance level of p < 0.05. The results showed that basic commodities were available during lockdown. However, there was no association between availability of basic commodities and background characteristics of the respondents. Covid- 19 lockdown also caused increases in food prices, but there was no significant association between increase in food prices and background characteristics. Besides, lack of association between basic food availability and affordability and the background characteristics the food security situation in Mafikeng local municipality was negatively affected. The study recommends targeted policy interventions to address the adverse effects of lockdowns on rural food security such as promotion of kitchen gardens.

18. Loftus Mmusinyane

The role of the traditional leadership institution in disaster risk reduction: the case of Batlhaping ba-ga Phuduhucwana, South Africa

In the past decades, the world has experienced a surge in large-scale flood disasters fuelled by climate change. To make matters worse, uncontrolled rural settlement planning, especially in developing countries has resulted in an unprecedent encroachment of wetlands and floodplains, a factor that has invariably increased people’s vulnerability to river floods. The community of Rooiwaal and Ext. 7 in Taung is facing the same challenge after traditional leaders arbitrarily settled them on wetlands and floodplains. This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the role of traditional leadership in disaster risk reduction in the study area, highlighting its role in land governance and allocation, challenges experienced and its working relationships with the local municipal authority in disaster risk reduction efforts.

By following an interpretivist research approach to knowledge generation and adopting the case study strategy, a sample of 20 research participants will be purposefully selected to provide data through semi-structured interviews. Data will be analysed thematically according to Kumar (2019) qualitative data analysis steps. As disaster risk reduction is everyone’s responsibility, the study will propose a comprehensive collaborative model to reduce rural people vulnerability to river floods. The implementation of such a model will invariably contribute towards the realisation of Sustainable Development Goal number 11.

19. Mpolokeng PG

The town-township linkages in South Africa perpetuates inequalities and inhibits development

The colonial history landscape created economic ‘livespots’ and ‘deadspots’ in South Africa. The former was engendered by the industrial and mining rush in the early colonial and apartheid eras when construction and infrastructure development peaked along the mining and industrial areas. By contrast, such development plateaued around the other less attractive areas. This disarticulation (Claude Ake, 1981) has resulted in the development gap between regions, provinces and settlements in South Africa today.

The land restitution policy and strategy in the new South Africa also seems doomed to fail to address this colonial and apartheid legacy. The problem lies in some provisions of the Land Restitution Act 22 of 1994. The act, among others, permits continuity by provisioning for an alternative land instead of the original land for land restoration. This work is based on lived experience, observation, and content analysis of the landscape in South Africa.

Keywords: restitution, development gap, continuity, town-township

20. Ike Umejesi

The state, resource conflict and sustainability in Africa

Analyses of resource-related conflict in different African states, and the quest for environmental justice, have often revolved around the resource curse thesis and ‘compensational justice’ debate. Conversely, the nature of state formation in Africa and its role in creating contemporary mineral resource conflict between stakeholders have often been relegated. In his study of the postcolonial troubles bedeviling African states, the French sociologist, Georges Balandier noted that these challenges emanate from a “triple history which has drawn together its constituent parts – the pre-colonial, colonial and postcolonial history”. Drawing on Balandier’s notion of ‘triple history’, this paper examines the skewed power relationship between stakeholders, and the connection between colonial legacy and present-day conflict in mining regions of Africa. It equally explores possible corrective approaches for addressing the prevailing distorted resource governance system in mineral-rich African states.

21. Bas Rijnen

Local Knowledge creation in international research projects

Rees et al. (2021) revealed that about 15% of global health research conducted in sub-Saharan Africa had no local authors. Ebenezer et al (2022) conclude that most projects that aim to study biological diversity in Africa have been led by researchers outside the continent and rarely meet the needs of people in Africa or align with its countries’ science agendas. This presentation will provide a critical reflection on north-south research partnerships in terms of local knowledge creation and sustainability through first-hand practical experiences at the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST) and experiences of northern partners. The study is conducted using Connell’s Southern Theory (2007) as a theoretical perspective which provides a theoretical framework for greater critical engagement with knowledge produced by researchers within the global South. It makes space for local context and local value creation. To what extent is local knowledge created in the Global South while collaborating with our Northern partners? Are most partnerships genuinely equitable and contributing to reaching the SDGs? The presentation will conclude with recommendations for Research Managers in the Global North and South.

22. Priviledge Cheteni

Indigenous knowledge systems and South African native ways of knowing: indigenous epistemologies in the wild coast

This paper draws on experiences from across the contexts of the Global South, with a focus on the South African context, to extend our understanding of the learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of various worldviews and knowledge systems. In this paper, we outline the rationale for a comprehensive programme of educational initiatives that are closely articulated with the emergence of a new generation of Indigenous scholars who seek to move the role of Indigenous knowledge and learning from the margins to the centre of educational research, thereby confronting some of the most intractable and pertinent epistemic issues of our times. An epistemological framework that can address the opposition between indigenous knowledge and scientific knowledge will be presented in this paper. This opposition is widespread in the field of anthropology, particularly in relation to the issue of entrepreneurship and sustainable development. In the first section of the paper, we will present a contextualist framework that satisfies two constraints: (1) a priori neutrality with respect to forms, or types, of knowledge, and (2) explicitness of the conditions with respect to the possibility of knowledge transfer. In the second section, we will apply the framework to the specific knowledge situation in the Global South. We investigate and make explicit the underlying epistemic standard that is at play using the framework, which identifies the conditions under which particular beliefs are qualified as knowledge within the context of the Global South.

23. Rezzouk Ghita

Rethinking Single Motherhood and communication strategies in Morocco

This dissertation rethinks the issue of single motherhood from within the relationships between employment, financial stability, poverty, and the family’s wellbeing for households headed by never-married mothers across different economic periods. It seeks to evaluate the communication strategies used to evaluate, analyze and assess this global issue including national and international policies, prevention and intervention strategies, and responses of law enforcement and service providers, organizational challenges. In Morocco, and most Arab countries, sex outside marriage is forbidden, as a result, the issue of single mothers is still a taboo. These single mothers are often abandoned by the fathers of their children and ostracized by other members of society. These women are considered as a source of trouble, shame, and dishonor; therefore, they are totally rejected by society. However, women’s organizations are working hard to challenge this stigmatization as well as to help these women gain their rights. Indeed, social stigmatization, criminal repression, and legal discrimination marginalize these women and their children and impact their ability to live a normal life. In this scope, this dissertation will deal with the issue of single-mother families in Morocco. This study focuses on detailed case studies of households headed by single mothers to illuminate how communicative strategies, community leaders and social welfare organizations must closely work together to prevent broken homes and marriages within contemporary Moroccan society. The method of this research is qualitative with a case study approach using a gender perspective theory and resilience theory as the main theoretical frameworks.

Keywords: single mother families; Economic Survival; social resilience; resilience, social stigmatization